Let it Snow, Let it Snow, Let it Snow.

Queen of the mountain.

Queen of the mountain.

I think Tess loves the snow more than I do.  Last year I finally broke down and purchased a “snow suit” for Tess.  Yes, I probably could have picked a different color, but I figured since we were going to be gawked at no matter what color she was fashioned in, purple it had to be.  Tess also wears snow boots.  I call them snow boots because it’s the only time she lets me put them on her.  She’s no dumbie.  Without the boots she accumulates ice the size of golf balls between her pads.

So what if we literally stop traffic and are surrounded by inquisitive tourists, sightseers, and the occasional paparazzi. With her infamous snow suit Tess leads the way on every trail no matter how deep the snow and we never have to stop to de-ice which makes our snow shoe trips a pleasant adventure for all.

Queen of the mountain.


Tess will turn 11 years old on New Year’s Eve making each and every snow filled moment with my purple maven that much more special.

Happy holidays to everyone and may your dogs stay true and continue to guide you to child-like bliss and adventures out side of your comfort zone.

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MY Backyard/Basement Training Routine

During the late fall and early winter months, because I live in the beautiful Pacific Northwest, MY backyard training routine must have the capacity to be taken indoors.  Consistency of routine is what I shoot for, not duration of workout.  This particular workout occurs every other or every third day depending on what kind of endurance work I can fit in on MY “off” days whether it’s a bike ride, run, snowshoe, or cross country ski.  Someone once said that it takes six week for something new to become a habit.  I find this so true and it is for this reason that I try not to take too much time off, as I hate the six-week break-in process.

I begin MY workout with 5 minutes of jump roping on a soft surface (grass or mat depending on the elements).  You haven’t lived until you’ve tried to jump rope in the snow.  It’s a hoot.  Jumping rope gets the blood flowing and turns on your body’s proprioceptive system, which helps you avoid those sprained ankles that can occur while doing MY next exercise – wind sprints.  MY wind sprints fit in my basement but all you really need is a hallway.  The wind sprints look similar to running lines like they do during basketball practices.  Upon finishing this exercise I usually require a few yoga poses to allow MY cardiovascular system to catch up to MY body.

Next, I borrow my dog’s cavaletti poles, which I position on the ground and walk grape vines through.  Doing grape vines always brings back fond memories of P.E. class and laughing at the boys as they tripped over themselves while the girls just glided by.  Next comes a series of walking high kicks (kick your leg out so you can touch your toe with your opposite hand and repeat with the opposite leg – bending your knee is allowed), and stationary running butt kicks and the warm-ups are complete.

Now comes the fun stuff.  Lunges, box jumps, squats, sit-ups, push-ups, and medicine ball work for MY core.  So there you go, MY backyard/basement training routine.  And as for my dog, the winter is her off-season.  She can be found giving me her wag of approval for my effort, all the while knowing that when it’s HER turn for stairs, hill work, trail running, cavaletti, disc activities, and agility drills her partner will not slow her down or sideline her with a nagging injury.  Damn those human knees and ankles.  Who was responsible for those designs anyways?

This not so subtle hint is part of the Dog Agility Blog Event that can be found at http://dog-agility-blog-events.posterous.com/pages/backyard-training

Thank you for reading and have a safe and happy holiday season.

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Walking Backwards

I love working with dogs and I have learned a lot from their owners.  Many of the dogs are sporting champions, which keeps me on my toes when designing a home exercise program for them AND their owners.  For example, there’s the owner of the obedience champion who when I prescribed having her begin walking with her dog on the opposite side (the right) it was like asking her to write a essay with her non-dominant hand.  Then, there’s the agility dog owner who when asked if her dog knows how to walk backwards said “sure” and proceeded to show me how her dog could do a “hand stand” against a wall by placing its back feet on the wall.  Now don’t get me wrong.  That is quite a cool trick, but it’s not the same as walking backwards.  Oh, and by the way.  The answer was no that dog could not walk backwards more than three steps.  Hmmm.

Below is a little “cheat sheet” of exercises that every canine rehab therapist wants your dog to know how to perform before Fido walks into his or her clinic.  It is much easier for all involved if both owner and dog are already familiar with these exercises so focus can be on the rehab and not on the training.

  1. Sitting high fives.
  2. Standing high fives.
  3. Walking backwards.
  4. Digging in a controlled fashion (ex. digging for a treat under a blanket).
  5. Forward WALKING through cavaletti poles or a ladder.
  6. Crawling.
  7. Sit to stand (and reverse).
  8. CONTROLLED leash walking (on your left AND on your right).
  9. Rolling over. SLOWLY!!! Both ways.
  10. Sit to down (and reverse).
  11. Trotting on leash.
  12. Figure 8’s through your legs.

How many of these exercises does your dog already know how to do?  Think of this list as a winter project.  Once your dog knows how to do these exercises you can use this list as a form of monthly health “check-up”.

Please notice that begging, handstands, or anything with a therapy ball/disc/peanut is not on my list.

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Well, shoot.  It’s sure been a while since my last post.  How did that happen?  Well, to be quite honest life just got in the way.  Basically, I got stuck.  It felt like I fell in a pit of quicksand.  So, I threw myself a little pity party and I think the last guest has finally left.  All is ok with me and mine, except my four-legged tribe is now one short.  I lost my cat Hank to cancer.  He had a tumor of his small intestines, which caused him to lose weight so very quickly.  He was in such pain.  I told him to give me a sign when he was ready to leave and the very next day while in my lap his purr abruptly stopped.  That was my cue.  He was ready.  His purr never returned.  My buddy needed me to help ease the pain and assist with his journey across.  Sometimes devotion sucks.  Hank left us on Saturday, October 27, 2012.   My only solace is now he is pain-free and has been spared the rainy cold days of the coming months.  He hated to be indoors.

Hank was a stray that walked through my cat door one day when I was living in Lincoln City, Oregon.  I figured that since my other four-legged companions thought that he was cool it was ok with me.  I knew he was a keeper the first time I heard his bigger than life purr.

There are so many unique and hilarious stories to share about Hank.  Like the time that he gave me Cat Scratch Fever which after carrying grapefruit-sized lymph nodes around for 6 weeks I was finally bounced to an Epidemiologist who diagnosed me in 30 seconds.  Thank goodness for that doctor, I was getting pretty tired of being a pincushion for science.

Hank was a big longhaired orange mellow fellow who was a gentleman to the end.  He purred through all his vet examines to the point that the vet had to take him into a “scary” room in order to make his purr stop so she could hear his heart and lungs with the stethoscope.  Hank also spoke human.  In his elderly years (he lived to be about 16) he would say “hello” as clear as day when he occasionally misplaced his tribe in the dark.

Thank you Hank for all the lessons.  I tried to be a good student.  I miss your hugs, your purr, and your welcoming presence.

Well, with that said …… I am back!   Thank you for your patience as I process through this life.

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Consistently Inconsistent

In dog sports we tend to focus on the orthopedic side of things.  We obtain information on structure, growth plate maturity, and OFA hip and elbow scores (I like Penn hips scores myself).  As we evolve as dog sport enthusiasts we are becoming more familiar with soft tissue “itis” lingo, (as in bicepital tendonitis) and the important role of ligaments and tendons for joint support.  But as we expand our knowledge pertaining to canine performance and health the frontier not yet explored is neurology and how it pertains to canine sports and performance longevity.

So, how does neurology fit into dog sports you ask?  Well, to start, it’s your dog’s coordination center.  It’s how your dog knows where its body is in space, or for the agility folks out there, on the dog walk or teeter.  It’s the communication center for quick movements, timely weight shifts, balance reactions, and oh soooo much more.  Many times when our dog’s performance has slowed or becomes inconsistent we, being the conscientious companion to our four-legged compadre, seek expert advice from our primary veterinarian or orthopedic vet specialist only to find out that the x-rays are normal.  Relieved on one hand but frustrated on the other, we plead our case about the now “phantom” lameness to the point of feeling like a neurotic owner and walk out with a prescription for rest and NSAIDs.  Case closed, but should it be?

Neurological issues in sporting dogs tend to be mysterious.  They tend to be that invisible something that you just can’t put your finger on.  That non-reproducible, consistently inconsistent toe scuff or lameness that goes away with rest, but returns after the vacation is over.  That occasional odd gait pattern that only YOU see or which presents itself just long enough to make you think that maybe you really are “that” neurotic dog owner.  I know.  I’ve been there and done that!

Neurological issues typically arise in performance dogs as a response to the repetitive forces of the sport.  Here’s sporting neurology in a nutshell.   Along the spine each two vertebrae make up a joint and their corresponding ligaments are responsible for supporting these joints.  In response to the repetitive mechanical stress, force, or load, which in turn causes increased vertebral movement (hypermobility) these ligaments thicken.  The thicker the ligament the more support it provides.    As these ligaments become thicker they may compromise the nerves that exit the spinal cord or they may apply pressure on the disc causing it to become unstable over time.

Another way the spine responds to repetitive hypermobility is by producing osteophytes or bone spurs formed by the vertebral bodies.  This is the vertebral body’s way of stabilizing the joint.  The nerve roots, which exit the spinal cord, are very sensitive to pressure and when irritated may produce abnormal sensations in your dog similar to what we experience when we bang an elbow, deal with carpal tunnel syndrome, or experience the radiating pain that goes down our leg from sciatica.  Just think of how many times your dog uses it’s neck during the weaves or the multiple jolts it experiences from the teeter or from hitting the upside of the A-frame.

So, why are so many neurological issues missed?  Well, MANY neurological issues DO NOT show up on radiographs; they require a MRI for identification.  Yes, just saying those three little letters cause the cash register in my head to cha-ching.  It’s that added zero at the end of the price tag that makes many of us doubt those inconsistent observations.  But sadly it’s true.  An MRI is the only way to figure out why a dog keeps scuffing her right front paw one day and her left rear paw the next even after normal radiographs, rest, and NSAIDs.

Another way, in my opinion to demystify the consistent inconsistency of your dog’s performance is to seek out a canine specialist who uses his/her hands, eyes, and ears as diagnostic tools.  A physical therapist that’s certified in canine rehabilitation therapy, a canine chiropractor, or even a canine massage therapist can help.  During our MANY years of training and within our scope of practice, our hands have become sensitive diagnostic tools and our expanded training has allowed us to be able to differentiate between an orthopedic issue and a neurological issue.  Our job is to then steer you in the right direction for further veterinary diagnostics when needed.

This last sentence is not intended to toot my own horn, but rather to acknowledge the process.  Tess and I were just at the neurologist’s office to determine if she had a bulging cervical disc or a radial nerve issue.  Because I was armed with information about her triceps brachii muscle atrophy, restricted vertebral movement at C4-T2, inconsistent stilted gait which is exacerbated by exercise (this of course was unable to reproduce in a 12 foot long hallway,) and because I was able to articulate the reason why I was there, Tess was not written off as having “typical age related changes” and given a prescription of rest and NSAIDs.  Instead we were offered a chest x-ray, EKG, prednisone, and yes, the dreaded MRI.  Cha-ching, cha-ching, and cha-ching.

It’s not easy to “read” our dogs and re-counting what we see to a third party is sometimes like trying to describe the color blue to a visually impaired person.  There’s no reason you have to do it alone when you have canine specialists who can assist you with the process.  Trust your intuition, be patient with the process, and continue to advocate for your dog.  Carpal tunnel syndrome used to be hard to describe too.

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Four-legged curly top seeks agility instructor for my two-legged companion.  Must be a people person with experience teaching multiple learning styles and be familiar with classic signs of human anxiety, frustration, confusion, impatience, and fatigue.  Must not tolerate avoidance behavior of any type including off-topic social commentary and self-deprecating excuses.  Understanding of the human aging process is a plus and ability to assist my two-legged companion in such is a must.

Must be fluent in non-border collie or at least have experience communing with non-herding breeds.  Must currently be participating in agility; MACH not required.  Must be a clicker-savvy creative problem-solver with extensive cheerleader-like vocabulary and vocal range.  Must be an astute observer of dog-human communication and be willing to support the human learning process with outside resources when needed.

Must provide a safe and encouraging learning environment with adjustable, rubberized, non-slatted equipment that matches the minimum skill level of both dog and human.  Must be willing to adapt curriculum to promote a successful experience, but be willing to provide counseling if minimum skill requirements aren’t met.

In short, looking for an agility instructor who will foster confidence, encourage discipline, and nurture the child-like playfulness of my companion.  Competitive, ego-minded individuals need not apply.

This creative moment was inspired by the topic “What makes a good coach/instructor?” for the third Agility Blog Event for 2012.  You can find other submissions at:





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Wear and Tear

Last weekend I found the perfect cure for writer’s block.  It’s called walk six miles up a mountain at three o’clock in the morning wearing nothing but running shoes, running shorts, florescent green T-shirt, gloves, hat, flashlight, and a Portland-to-Coast race number.  Oh yes, I mustn’t forget my two flashers and reflective vest, which were the only things keeping me from blending into the shadows when the occasional oncoming motorcycle patrol volunteer went by.

So for about ninety minutes it was me, myself, and I walking as fast as my legs could go.  The darkness kept me from distraction and gave me the opportunity to try and put my finger on something that’s been nagging at me related to dog sports, dog injuries, and owner frustration.  Something was missing.  So I started to review my assumptions about dog sports and put together a working hypothesis to test upon my return home.

My hypothesis goes like this: I believe dog owners come home from a three day agility trial – I’m using agility as an example, but it could be any dog sporting event – and they assess their dog for any “wear and tear” before their day is officially complete, much like I do with my mountain bike after a day of gravity assisted frolic of single tracks, rocks, and roots.  With my mountain bike I assume that the terrain will take a toll on my bike, and before I am truly done for the day I wipe off any debris and realign and lubricate all mechanical parts so I know before my next ride if I need to make a stop at my local bike shop for adjustments.

Now, I know that a dog is not a piece of equipment like a mountain bike.  But until my dog can answer the question “how are you feeling” or “where does it hurt” I’m the one totally responsible for it’s current and future functioning and personally I don’t like surprises and am of the belief system that little fires are easier to put out than big ones, but I digress.

So, over the past week I have been testing this hypothesis and what did I find?  Well, I informally asked twenty-three owners (all owners of agility dogs of various experience levels) what they do after they get home from an agility trial.  The clear majority don’t include a dog “wear and tear” scan; no massage, no stretch, no palpation for soreness.  Quite frankly, many didn’t know they should or even where to begin.  They are proud of their warm-up and cool-down routines while at the trial, but few knew that there was more to it than that.  Sadly, my hypothesis failed!

I feel that this home “wear and tear” scan might be the missing link for injury prevention because it can alert you to a potential injury that might be prevented with Traumeel and a little time off.  So, no wonder many owners are surprised and/or frustrated when their dog comes up lame, which many times was caused by a layering of little injuries.  They truly are the last to know.

What does a “wear and tear” scan look like?  For more information or to just keep this discussion going please join my Yahoo-group at poodles-in-motion.

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Conditioning: It’s Not Just for Hair

Whenever I open my big mouth, or whatever the Internet equivalence of that is, about canine fitness I’m often asked if I could give an example of a conditioning program.  Now, I am not opposed to giving one, actually I like designing these programs, but it’s really not as simple as it may seem.

I come to the dog-sporting world not from the dog- training world, but via the human sporting world.  I was a collegiate athlete and have experienced first hand how a good conditioning program can make or break a sporting career.  As a dog owner, I came face-to-face with the realization of how important a conditioning program is when Tess found her way into my life.  Upon arrival Tess was an under conditioned 4 ½ year old who got winded from just one trip around the block.  So to remedy the situation I collected all my resources and got to work on our conditioning program.  Yes, OURS!

So fast forward 6 years and even though Tess is now retired from agility WE are still participating in OUR conditioning program, which has been modified as needed of course, but is still going strong.  It’s a program that we both do together.  We run together, we “swim” together, I push her and she pushes me.  Just recently, as she creeps toward eleven years old, I had to cut back on the number of miles she runs per week and I had to “girl up” and learn to be ok with running solo.  I don’t know whom this change was harder on, her or me.

When I design a conditioning program it begins with YOU.  What are YOUR goals?  How much time and space do YOU have available?  What equipment do YOU already have?  How fit are YOU?  I first build a conditioning program around YOU and then, and only then, do I add your dog and all its variables into the formula.

From my experience, the best conditioning program is individualized and is designed around the athlete (human or dog).  When an athlete is built around a conditioning program one of two things usually occur.  The program becomes unbalanced and injuries start to appear (one of the leading causes of iliopsoas injuries, in my book) or the program becomes impractical and/or burdensome and it is discontinued, all the while the athlete continues to compete!

So, can you see why I hesitate when asked to design a conditioning program by a group?  I can confidently say that all canine conditioning programs need to be balanced with equal parts eccentric, concentric, isometric, plyometric, proprioception, flexibility, and endurance (don’t panic, multiple parts can be incorporated into one exercise).  But really, what exactly a conditioning program looks like is up to YOU.  Oh and by the way, it took three years for me to feel that Tess’s body was ready for agility.  How long did it take for your dog’s body to be ready for its first agility class?

Any questions?  Join my growing yahoo-group called poodles-in-motion.  Right now we are analyzing a 17″ poodle jumping at 16″, 22″, and 26″.  Thank you Diane for a great series of videos.

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Painfully Slow

Well, I just returned home from my latest brain vacation (BV).  For some a BV means taking a break from all things stressful, but for me it means letting my nerdy brain run free amongst the diagnostics, literature reviews, and facts.  The focus of this BV was Current Techniques in Canine Pain Management, which was held by the Canine Rehabilitation Institute in Snowmass Village, Colorado at an amazing altitude of 9500 feet.  Once this lowlander got used to the diuretic and lung crushing effects such altitude has on a human, I was in my brain’s equivalent of Disneyland.

It was wonderful being with other canine rehabilitation therapists (Vets and PTs) for three days learning cutting edge information about lasers and canine pain management.  I could write for hours about NSAIDs, supplements, and the physiology of pain, especially the tripartite synapse, but since I still have your full attention I think it’s best to discuss a few common misconceptions about canine pain.  Here are just a few:

  •  “My dog isn’t in pain because it isn’t limping and doesn’t cry out”.  Dog’s only cry out when a pain is acute, they don’t cry out when the pain is chronic.  Dogs are masters at “sucking it up” because they don’t want to be the weakest link within the pack.
  • “My dog is JUST old”.  It is true that the natural aging process causes decreases in muscle mass and energy, but old dogs like to play and they maintain a desire to play to the very end.  Painful dogs slow down because they are conserving their energy.  This is how chronic pain becomes debilitating.  Ever heard something like this before?  “My 12 year old dog is acting like a puppy again.”  Or “I haven’t seen her do that in 5 years”.  Hmmmm?
  • “Animals don’t feel pain like we do”.  They feel pain worse!  This is due to increased anxiety that accompanies their pain.  For example, they don’t know that their cast will come off in two weeks.  Dogs have been known to chew toes, paw, etc. off to alleviate their pain.
  • “There is nothing we can do”.  This is true for many veterinarians, but not specialists.  There is now an International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management comprised of Vets and PTs that focus on pain management and new interventions.
  • “It’s an NSAID and Tramadol or nothing”.  This used to be true, but now there are acupuncture, trigger point therapy, myofascial release, mobilizations, TENS, E-stim, ultrasound, and laser interventions available for your dog.  See a Certified Canine Rehabilitation Therapist near you for more information.
  • “Post-Op pain is beneficial”.  Post-op pain causes an increased sensitivity to future pain.  Only 24% of randomly chosen veterinarians actually use post- operative pain medication with their patients.
  • “Spays and neuters don’t need pain medications”.  See above.  Again, an acute consideration with possible long-term implications.
  • “Pain medication in old or debilitated animals is dangerous”.  Once a complete senior blood panel has been completed the opposite is actually true.  Considering that pain prevents normal functions like eating, drinking, bowel elimination, breathing, and ambulating, pain management preserves quality of life.  Medicating any animal with a one-size-fits-all approach is very dangerous, but having an experienced veterinarian on your team who understands how to vary medications, their doses and intervals is paramount.

As a dog owner sitting in this course my “aha” moment came in the shape of a single power point slide which said, “We do not see things as they are.  We see things as we are.”  And as a Certified Canine Rehabilitation Therapist participating in this course I felt empowered by sitting with so many others who are striving to see canine issues more clearly.  Awareness fuels the journey out of the box and after this class the lid feels a little lighter.

If you are interested in knowing more about pain management or how canine rehabilitation might help your canine companion please join my yahoo-group (poodles-in-motion) and start a discussion.  The current discussion is “What is a safe jump height for my 17” kleinpudel, 16” or 22”?

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Weaving in Style

I have to admit when I first started teaching my dog, Tess the weaves for agility she was seven years old and I rejoiced if she understood what I wanted her do with that field of PVC.  I used the 2 x 2 training method made famous by Susan Garrett because it just made sense to the PT part of me.  As a pediatric PT I do A LOT of training/teaching of new skills.  Breaking an activity into small steps increases acquisition time, which is exactly what the 2 x 2 method does brilliantly.  Teaching a weaving style was never part of my instruction process as I left that part entirely up to Tess.

Since dogs use four limbs for movement rather than two, they not only choose side preference (right vs. left) but they also chose drive preference (rear vs. front).  Drive preference is dictated my many things and it varies from breed to breed and within breeds.  Rear drive preference equals two stepping (two paws on one side of the weave pole).  When two stepping through the weaves, a dog’s lateral weight shift and drive are rear leg dependent with a longer “suspension moment” which requires a strong core.  Single stepping (one foot on each side a weave pole,) is used by a front drive preference dog and requires the dog to pull itself through the weaves with the front legs while the back legs follow behind.  This style requires a spinal “whip” for lateral weight shift and requires a flexible spine.

I am often asked, “Which style places a higher demand on the dog’s body?”  As a Certified Canine Rehabilitation Therapist who has worked on many agility dogs with shoulder and back injuries I can say single stepping is very hard on the dog’s body, but when asked, “What style should I teach my dog?” I say, let the dog decide.  “But single-stepping looks faster.”  Sometimes looks are deceiving.

A dog can be slow through the weaves for many reasons, but using the “wrong” style is not one of them.  Here are a few reasons I have observed for consistently slow weave performances.

  • Training issue #1: The dog doesn’t understand its job (not enough training in multiple scenarios i.e., jump before weaves, contact before the weaves, entry from the left, entry from the right, etc.)
  • Training issue #2: The handler forgot to teach speed.  Accuracy was rewarded but speed was left up to the dog’s discretion.  Motor learning is a powerful tool especially with animals.  When you reward a slow accurate weave performance you just rewarded a SLOW weave performance.
  • A strength/conditioning/efficiency issue (including collection, drive, endurance): This is where a good canine rehab therapist can help.  We are movement efficiency experts, at least PTs are.  (FYI, not all CCRTs or CCRPs are PTs.  Got to love those acronyms – see below.**)
  • Injury: This should always be ruled out first!  Based on my experience these injuries are usually subtle soft tissue issues that don’t present as lameness!  See your nearest CCRT or CCRP soon (FYI, PTs are experts in soft tissue injury identification. Hint, hint, nudge, nudge).

I feel speed in the weaves has nothing to do with style, but has everything to do with efficiency.  Efficiency of movement is one of my favorite lectures to give.  Promoting efficiency will get you speed and is how you can insert longevity into your dog’s sporting career.  For example, in the human world if you watch five professional baseball pitchers throw a baseball during a game you will see five different pitching styles. Each style is based on efficiency of movement for that INDIVIDUAL player’s structure, strength, and range of motion (not just of the arm, but of the whole body). If you start tinkering with a pitcher’s style you can ruin a pitching career.  So, “which pitcher is the better pitcher?” the one that throws fast AND accurately not the one with the prettiest style.  Promoting efficiency within the style, whatever style that might be, is the key, not perfecting the style.

It is true that two stepping is less demanding on the dog’s body than single stepping, but I would never stop a dog from single stepping if that’s the style that the dog has chosen, and I am a VERY longevity-minded individual when it comes to sports for the four legged athlete.  The dog knows its body far better than we do and we need to trust them on this one.  Just remember, efficiency promotes speed, not style.

Tess used both styles throughout her agility career.  She initially learned on 22” spaced weaves poles and her rear drive was strong enough to push her body through the 22” spacing using the two stepping style with little effort (she’s a square standard poodle at 22” at the withers).  But when we changed to 24” poles the rear drive demand increased and she switched to a single stepping style.  Tess modified her style to promote efficiency.  Just for curiosity sake I put Tess back on the 22” weaves and she began two stepping again.  For Tess it wasn’t a training issue, but rather physical efficiency that determined her style.  As for speed, she was faster using the two stepping method, but was it due to efficiency or was she covering less distance using the 22” poles?  My inquiring mind wishes that I had a canine movement lab to answer all the questions my little brain comes up with, but for now I’m saving up for a $90,000 underwater treadmill.

If you have any questions please join my poodles-in-motion yahoo group for discussions and video sharing.

** CCRT: Certified Canine Rehabilitation Therapist (may be either a vet or a PT) trained through the Canine Rehabilitation Institute

** CCRP: Certified Canine Rehabilitation Therapist (may be either a vet or PT) trained through the University of Tennessee

FYI: Veterinarians and physical therapists complete the same coursework and certification process to become a CCRT/CCRP.

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